Effect of cleaning and sterilization on titanium implant surface properties and cellular response

Jung Hwa Park, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Robert E. Baier, Anne E. Meyer, Rina Tannenbaum, Barbara D. Boyan, Zvi Schwartz

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124 Scopus citations

Abstract

Titanium (Ti) has been widely used as an implant material due to the excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of its oxide surface. Biomaterials must be sterile before implantation, but the effects of sterilization on their surface properties have been less well studied. The effects of cleaning and sterilization on surface characteristics were bio-determined using contaminated and pure Ti substrata first manufactured to present two different surface structures: pretreated titanium (PT, Ra = 0.4 μm) (i.e. surfaces that were not modified by sandblasting and/or acid etching); (SLA, Ra = 3.4 μm). Previously cultured cells and associated extracellular matrix were removed from all bio-contaminated specimens by cleaning in a sonicator bath with a sequential acetone-isopropanol-ethanol- distilled water protocol. Cleaned specimens were sterilized with autoclave, gamma irradiation, oxygen plasma, or ultraviolet light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine surface chemical components, hydrophilicity, roughness, and morphology, respectively. Small organic molecules present on contaminated Ti surfaces were removed with cleaning. XPS analysis confirmed that surface chemistry was altered by both cleaning and sterilization. Cleaning and sterilization affected hydrophobicity and roughness. These modified surface properties affected osteogenic differentiation of human MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Specifically, autoclaved SLA surfaces lost the characteristic increase in osteoblast differentiation seen on starting SLA surfaces, which was correlated with altered surface wettability and roughness. These data indicated that recleaned and resterilized Ti implant surfaces cannot be considered the same as the first surfaces in terms of surface properties and cell responses. Therefore, the reuse of Ti implants after resterilization may not result in the same tissue responses as found with never-before-implanted specimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1966-1975
Number of pages10
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2012

Keywords

  • Hydrophilicity
  • MG63 cells
  • Roughness
  • Sterilization
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology

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    Park, J. H., Olivares-Navarrete, R., Baier, R. E., Meyer, A. E., Tannenbaum, R., Boyan, B. D., & Schwartz, Z. (2012). Effect of cleaning and sterilization on titanium implant surface properties and cellular response. Acta Biomaterialia, 8(5), 1966-1975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2011.11.026