Effect of Bonding Agent Application Method on Titanium-Ceramic Bond Strength

Joseph G. Curtis, Jon Dossett, Thomas J. Prihoda, Erica C. Teixeira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: Although milled titanium may be used as a substructure in fixed and implant prosthodontics, the application of the veneering porcelain presents particular challenges compared to traditional alloys. To address these challenges, some Ti ceramic systems incorporate the application of a bonding agent prior to the opaque layer. Vita Titankeramik's bonding agent is available as a powder, paste, and spray-on formulation. We examined the effect of these three application methods on the bond strength. Materials and Methods: Four titanium bars were milled from each of 11 wafers cut from grade II Ti using the Kavo Everest milling unit and a custom-designed milling toolpath. An experienced technician prepared the 25 × 3 × 0.5 mm3 metal bars and applied bonding agent using one of three application methods, and then applied opaque, dentin, and enamel porcelains according to manufacturer's instructions to a 8 × 3 × 1 mm3 porcelain. A control group received no bonding agent prior to porcelain application. The four groups (n = 11) were blindly tested for differences in bond strength using a universal testing machine in a three-point bend test configuration, based on ISO 9693-1:2012. Results: The average (SD) bond strengths for the control, powder, paste, and spray-on groups, respectively, were: 24.8 (2.6), 24.6 (2.6), 25.3 (4.0), and 24.1 (3.9) MPa. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests were performed between all groups. There were no statistically significant differences among groups (p = 0.951). Conclusion: Titanium-porcelain bond strength was not affected by the use of a bonding agent or its application method when tested by ISO 9693-1 standard.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)394-400
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Prosthodontics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • Analysis of variance
  • Dental porcelain
  • Materials testing
  • Metal ceramic alloys
  • Microscopy, electron, scanning
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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