This in vitro study compared microleakage in Class V amalgam restorations with three different lining agents and with no lining agent, with and without resin rebonding of the margins. Eight groups of ten molars were divided into four pairs of groups. Class V preparations were cut in the facial surfaces of each molar so that the occlusal margin was in enamel and the gingival margin in dentine. The preparations in one pair of groups received no lining agent; the preparations in the remaining three pairs of groups were lined with one of the following: Copalite, Universal Bond 3 (UB3) Primer and Adhesive, or UB3 Primer only. The enamel walls of the preparations receiving the UB3 Primer and Adhesive were etched prior to applying the lining material. Amalgam was hand condensed into each preparation. In one of each pair of groups, the margins of restorations were treated with 37% phosphoric acid gel, rinsed and dried, and UB3 Adhesive was applied over amalgam and tooth margins and polymerized (rebonded). Specimens were thermocycled, stained and sectioned. Microleakage was graded using a stereomicroscope. Mean microleakage scores for occlusal and gingival margins were calculated and analysed. At enamel margins, non-rebonded Copalite and all rebonded specimens showed less microleakage than the other non-rebonded groups. The group lined with UB3 Primer only and rebonded showed significantly less (P < 0.01) microleakage at enamel margins than all the other groups except the group lined with Copalite and rebonded. At cementum/dentine margins, restorations lined with UB3 Primer and rebonded showed significantly less microleakage than the other groups.
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