Do patients with malocclusion have a higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorders than controls both before and after orthognathic surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Essam Ahmed Al-Moraissi, Daniel Perez, Edward Ellis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify, through meta-analysis, whether patients who require orthognathic surgery have a higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) than controls, both before treatment and after. Material and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on PRISMA guidelines, to address the study purposes. A search of major databases through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL was performed to locate all pertinent articles published from inception to June 2016. Inclusion criteria were controlled clinical studies, either prospective or retrospective, and case-control studies comparing preoperative and postoperative signs and symptoms of TMDs in patients who undergo orthognathic surgery to those of a healthy volunteer population with no dentofacial deformities. The predictor variables were patients with dentofacial deformities who underwent orthognathic surgery and patients with no dentofacial deformities and with good maxillomandibular relations and normal occlusion. The outcomes variables were the weighted, prevalence rate (proportion) in signs and symptoms of TMDs in patients with dentofacial deformities and risk ratio (RR) of signs and symptoms of TMDs before and after orthognathic surgery, compared to the control group. Results: A total of 542 patients enrolled in 6 studies were included in this analysis. The overall pooled weighted rate or prevalence of TMDs for orthognathic surgery patients preoperatively was 32.5% (95% CI = 26.7%-38.9%). There was a significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to TMDs before surgery, but no significant difference in TMDs after surgery. The RR for patients who had dentofacial deformities before orthognathic surgery compared with a control group was 1.634 (95% CI = 1.216-2.194; P = 0.001). The RR for patients after orthognathic surgery compared with a control group was 1.262 (0.718; 95% CI = 0.805-1.979; P = 0.311). Conclusion: The results of this study show that patients who are going to have a correction of their malocclusion by orthodontics and orthognathic surgery have a significant incidence of TMDs when compared to a control population, but that after treatment, the incidence of TMDs does not differ from a control population. The reasons for these findings are not clear.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2017



  • BSSO
  • Case control
  • Meta analysis
  • Orthognathic surgery
  • TMD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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