Objective: Percutaneous intervention for symptomatic renal artery atherosclerosis is rapidly replacing surgery in many centers. This study evaluated the anatomic and functional outcomes of endovascular therapy for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis on a combined vascular surgery and interventional radiology service at an academic medical center. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent renal artery angioplasty with or without stenting between January 1990 and June 2002. Indications included hypertension (86%) and rising serum creatinine concentration (55%). One hundred forty-six patients (80 women; average age, 71 years [range, 44-89 years]) underwent 183 attempted interventions (64 to treat bilateral stenosis). Forty-five percent of patients had significant bilateral disease: 27% had greater than 50% bilateral stenosis, and the remainder had nonfunctioning, absent, or occluded vessels. Results: Of 183 planned interventions, technical success (<30% residual stenosis) was achieved in 179 vessels (98%) with placement of 137 stents (75%). Thirty-day mortality was 0.7%. The major morbidity rate was 4%, and the procedure-related complication rate was 18%. Five-year cumulative patient mortality was 25%. Primary patency, assisted primary patency, and recurrent stenosis rates were 82% ± 9%, 100% ± 0%, and 30% ± 7%, respectively, at 5 years. Within 3 months of the procedure, 52% of patients who received treatment of hypertension demonstrated clinical benefit (hypertension improved or cured), which was maintained in 68% of patients at 5 years. Serum creatinine concentration was lowered or stabilized in 87% of patients within 3 months of the procedure, but this benefit, including freedom from dialysis, was maintained in only 45% of patients at 5 years. Conclusions: Endovascular intervention for symptomatic atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is technically successful. There were excellent patency and low recurrent stenosis rates. There is immediate clinical benefit for most patients, but divergent long-term functional outcomes. Endovascular interventions modestly enhance the care of the patient with hypertension, but poorly preserve long-term renal function in the patient with chronic renal impairment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine