Distinct β-cell defects in impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance

Mustafa Kanat, Andrea Mari, Luke Norton, Diedre Winnier, Ralph A Defronzo, Chris Jenkinson, Muhammad A Abdul-ghani

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Abstract

To characterize the defects in β-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and compare the results to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects, β-cell glucose sensitivity and rate sensitivity during the oral glucose tolerance test were measured with the model by Mari in 172 Mexican Americans. A subgroup (n = 70) received a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp (+125 mg/dL), and first- and second-phase insulin secretion were quantitated. Compared with NGT, subjects with IFG and IGT manifested a decrease in β-cell glucose sensitivity; IFG subjects, but not IGT subjects, had decreased β-cell rate sensitivity. In IFG subjects, the defect in β-cell glucose sensitivity was time dependent, began to improve after 60 min, and was comparable to NGT after 90 min. The incremental area under the plasma C-peptide concentration curve during the first 12 min of the hyperglycemic clamp (ΔC-pep [AUC] 0-12) was inversely related with the increase in FPG concentration (r = -36, r = 0.001), whereas ΔC-pep[AUC] 15-120 positively correlated with FPG concentration (r = 0.29, r < 0.05). When adjusted for the prevailing level of insulin resistance, first-phase insulin secretion was markedly decreased in both IFG and IGT, whereas second-phase insulin secretion was decreased only in IGT. These results demonstrate distinct defects in β-cell function in IFG and IGT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)447-453
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes
Volume61
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2012

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Glucose Intolerance
Fasting
Glucose
Insulin
Area Under Curve
C-Peptide
Glucose Tolerance Test
Insulin Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Kanat, M., Mari, A., Norton, L., Winnier, D., Defronzo, R. A., Jenkinson, C., & Abdul-ghani, M. A. (2012). Distinct β-cell defects in impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes, 61(2), 447-453. https://doi.org/10.2337/db11-0995

Distinct β-cell defects in impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. / Kanat, Mustafa; Mari, Andrea; Norton, Luke; Winnier, Diedre; Defronzo, Ralph A; Jenkinson, Chris; Abdul-ghani, Muhammad A.

In: Diabetes, Vol. 61, No. 2, 02.2012, p. 447-453.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kanat, M, Mari, A, Norton, L, Winnier, D, Defronzo, RA, Jenkinson, C & Abdul-ghani, MA 2012, 'Distinct β-cell defects in impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance', Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 447-453. https://doi.org/10.2337/db11-0995
Kanat, Mustafa ; Mari, Andrea ; Norton, Luke ; Winnier, Diedre ; Defronzo, Ralph A ; Jenkinson, Chris ; Abdul-ghani, Muhammad A. / Distinct β-cell defects in impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. In: Diabetes. 2012 ; Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 447-453.
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