Disproportionately elevated proinsulinemia is observed at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range

Carlos Lorenzo, Anthony J. Hanley, Marian J. Rewers, Steven M. Haffner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

We aimed to evaluate disproportional proinsulinemia in the pre-diabetic state by analyzing the cross-sectional differences between proinsulin (PI) ratios across the entire range of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose. The study sample was 1,016 participants in the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study, who had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. Insulin sensitivity index (S I) and acute insulin response (AIR) were measured by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting intact and split PI-to-insulin ratios (PI/I, SPI/I), intact and split PI-to-C-peptide ratios (PI/C-pep, SPI/C-pep), and SI-adjusted AIR were assessed as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose levels. SI-adjusted AIR was decreased (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 120-131 mg/dl) and SPI/C-pep increased at modestly elevated fasting glucose and 2-h glucose within the normal glucose tolerance range (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 132-142 mg/dl). PI/I was not increased until plasma glucose values were in the diabetic range of fasting glucose (>126 mg/dl) or the impaired glucose tolerance range of 2-h glucose (143-156 mg/dl). SPI/I and PI/C-pep as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose were situated between the curves for SPI/C-pep and PI/I. In conclusion, inappropriate amounts of PI and conversion intermediaries are demonstrated at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range. Ratios that use SPI in the numerator or C-pep in the denominator (and especially SPI/C-pep) are more sensitive to early glycemic excursions than PI/I. Disordered processing of PI may accompany derangements in early insulin secretory response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-623
Number of pages7
JournalActa Diabetologica
Volume51
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2014

Keywords

  • C-peptide
  • Insulin secretion
  • Insulin sensitivity
  • Proinsulinemia
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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