Discrimination of late apoptotic/necrotic cells (Type III) by flow cytometry in solid tumors

Melissa C. O'Brien, Stephen F. Healy, Shula R. Raney, Josephine M. Hurst, Barry Avner, Andrew Hanly, C. Mies, James W. Freeman, Christopher Snow, Steven K. Koester, Wade E. Bolton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


A method is described for the discrimination of Type III, late apoptotic, and necrotic cells, to improve the accuracy of proliferation and ploidy determinations of breast tumors. We selected an immunological probe, antitubulin antibody, and a DNA specific stain, propidium iodide (PI), both capable of crossing the permeable membranes of Type III, late apoptotic, and necrotic cells. This study utilized MDA-MB-175-VII breast carcinoma cells deprived of oxygen for up to 11 d to simulate intratumoral hypoxia, and 10 human breast tumors and mouse-human breast tumor xenografts disassociated by mechanical or enzymatic means. After 24 h under hypoxic conditions, the MDA cells displayed characteristics associated with both apoptosis and necrosis. Approximately 50% of day 1 cells showed membrane permeability by trypan blue and absence of DNA laddering; however, by day 3-4 characteristic apoptotic DNA laddering by gel electrophoresis was evident. Substantial DNA content loss, further evidenced by a reduction in PI staining and fluorescent microscopy, was obvious by day 5. By day 10, 98% of cells showed no propidium iodide staining by conventional PI live/dead cell gating, but were positive for antitubulin antibody staining. When the study was extended to the analysis of ten tumors, antitubulin antibody showed a range of 78%-96% staining with a median value of 87.5%, while PI staining showed a range of 8%-74% with a median value of 11.5% This study demonstrates that a large percentage of cells in tumors and hypoxic cell populations have significantly reduced DNA content, such that conventional live/dead cell gating using PI may include many Type III cells as live cells, thus significantly altering data involving multicolor investigations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-89
Number of pages9
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 1 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Apoptosis
  • Flow cytometry
  • Necrosis
  • Tubulin
  • Tumors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Biophysics
  • Hematology
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology


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