Purpose: To determine the divergence of immunometabolic phenotypes of macrophages stimulated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) and granulocyte-M-CSF (GM-CSF) and its implications for fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging of atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the animal care committee. Uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and various indexes of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism were evaluated in nonactivated murine peritoneal macrophages (MΦ0) and macrophages stimulated with M-CSF (MΦM-CSF) or GM-CSF (MΦGM-CSF). Intracellular glucose flux was measured by using stable isotope tracing of glycolytic and tricyclic acid intermediary metabolites. 18F-FDG uptake was evaluated in murine atherosclerotic aortas after stimulation with M-CSF or GM-CSF by using quantitative autoradiography. Results: Despite inducing distinct activation states, GM-CSF and M-CSF stimulated progressive but similar levels of increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in macrophages that reached up to sixfold compared with MΦ0. The expression of glucose transporters, oxidative metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis were induced to similar levels in MΦM-CSF and MΦGM-CSF. Unexpectedly, there was a 1.7-fold increase in extracellular acidification rate, a 1.4-fold increase in lactate production, and overexpression of several critical glycolytic enzymes in MΦM-CSF compared with MΦGM-CSF with associated increased glucose flux through glycolytic pathway. Quantitative autoradiography demonstrated a 1.6-fold induction of 18F-FDG uptake in murine atherosclerotic plaques by both M-CSF and GM-CSF. Conclusion: The proinflammatory and inflammation-resolving activation states of macrophages induced by GM-CSF and M-CSF in either cell culture or atherosclerotic plaques may not be distinguishable by the assessment of glucose uptake.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging