Differential regulation of growth plate chondrocytes by 1α,25-(OH)2D3 and 24r,25-(OH)2D3involves cell-maturation-specific membrane-receptor-activated phospholipid metabolism

B. D. Boyan, V. L. Sylvia, D. D. Dean, F. Del Toro, Z. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


This review discusses the regulation of growth plate chondrocytes by vitamin D3. Over the past ten years, our understanding of how two vitamin D metabolites, 1α,25-(OH)2D3 and 24R,25-(OH)2D3, exert their effects on endochondral ossification has undergone considerable advances through the use of cell biology and signal transduction methodologies. These studies have shown that each metabolite affects a primary target cell within the endochondral developmental lineage. 1α,25-(OH)2D3 affects primarily growth zone cells, and 24R,25-(OH)2D3 affects primarily resting zone cells. In addition, 24R,25-(OH)2D3 initiates a differentiation cascade that results in down-regulation of responsiveness to 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and up-regulation of responsiveness to 1α,25-(OH)2D3. 1α,25-(OH)2D3 regulates growth zone chondrocytes both through the nuclear vitamin D receptor, and through a membrane-associated receptor that mediates its effects via a protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction pathway. PKCα is increased via a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent mechanism, as well as through the stimulation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Arachidonic acid and its downstream metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) also modulate cell response to 1α,25-(OH)2D3. In contrast, 24R,25-(OH)2D3 exerts its effects on resting zone cells through a separate, membrane-associated receptor that also involves PKC pathways. PKCα is increased via a phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated mechanism, as well as through inhibition of the PLA2 pathway. The target-cell-specific effects of each metabolite are also seen in the regulation of matrix vesicles by vitamin D3. However, the PKC isoform involved is PKCζ, and its activity is inhibited, providing a mechanism for differential autocrine regulation of the cell and events in the matrix by these two vitamin D3 metabolites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-154
Number of pages12
JournalCritical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2002


  • 1α,25-(OH)D
  • 24R,25- (OH)D
  • Chondrocytes
  • Endochondral ossification
  • Growth plate
  • Phospholipase A
  • Phospholipase C
  • Phospholipase D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Dentistry(all)

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