Aims: To identify distinct temporal likelihoods of age-related comorbidity (ARC) diagnoses: cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, depression, dementia, and frailty-related diseases (FRD) in older men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but ARC naïve initially, and assess the heterogeneous effects of metformin on ARCs and mortality. Methods: We identified a clinical cohort of male veterans in the United States who were ≥. 65. years old with T2D and free from ARCs during 2002-2003. ARC diagnoses during 2004-2012 were analyzed using latent class modeling adjusted for confounders. Results: The cohort consisted of 41,204 T2D men with age 74.6. ±. 5.8. years, HbA1c 6.5. ±. 0.97%, and 8393 (20.4%) metformin users. Four ARC classes were identified. 'Healthy Class' (53.6%): metformin reduced likelihoods of all ARCs (from 0.14% in dementia to 6.1% in CVD). 'High Cancer Risk Class' (11.6%): metformin reduced likelihoods of CVD (13.3%), cancer (45.5%), depression (5.0%), and FRD (13.7%). 'High CVD Risk Class' (17.4%): metformin reduced likelihoods of CVD (48.6%), cancer (3.2%), depression (2.8%), and FRD (6.3%). 'High Frailty Risk Class' (17.2%): metformin reduced likelihoods of CVD (18.8%), cancer (3.9%), dementia (3.8%), depression (15.6%), and FRD (23.8%). Conclusions: Metformin slowed ARC development in old men with T2D, and these effects varied by ARC phenotype.
- Type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism