It has previously been shown that oral intake of 300 calories of glucose (75 g), lipid, or protein increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by polymorphonuclear cells (PMNL) and mononuclear cells (MNCs). We investigated the effects of 75 g glucose on proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), in mononuclear cells. To further investigate whether the effects of macronutrient-induced oxidative stress are due to consumption of calories or are nutrient specific, we investigated the effects of acute oral challenge of equicaloric amounts of alcohol (300 calories) on ROS generation and NF-κB activation in MNCs and PMNL and compared them with those of glucose and water (control). Sixteen normal healthy adult volunteers were given either vodka (10 subjects), glucose solution (10 subjects), or 300 mL water (7 subjects). Vodka and glucose drinks were equivalent to 300 calories. We measured ROS generation and intranuclear NF-κB activation by PMNL cells and MNCs at 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours following ingestion. ROS generation by both MNC and PMNL increased significantly (P < .05 for MNC and P < .01 for PMNL) following intake of glucose solution, but did not change significantly following alcohol or water. NF-κB binding activity in MNC nuclear extracts also increased (P < .001) following ingestion of glucose solution, but did not change after the administration of alcohol or water. We conclude that (1) 75 g oral glucose increases NF-κB binding activity in MNCs. (2) While 75 g glucose (300 calories) induces an increase in ROS generation and intranuclear NF-κB, equicaloric amounts of alcohol did not produce these effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism