Differential cardiovascular profiles of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: Critical evaluation of empagliflozin

Vani P. Sanon, Shalin Patel, Saurabh Sanon, Ruben Rodriguez, Son V. Pham, Robert Chilton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


One of the most feared repercussions of type 2 diabetes mellitus is the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The current antidiabetic agents on the market have had difficulty in showing cardiovascular outcome improvement. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial studied the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. The trial results revealed a decrease in the composite primary end points of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke in those taking empagliflozin vs placebo. Those taking the medication also had a significant decrease in death from any cause, death from cardiovascular cause, and hospitalization for heart failure. The EMPA-REG trial is paradigm shifting because it demonstrates a clear mortality benefit to cardiovascular outcomes with a low side-effect profile, in contrast to prior outcome studies of hypoglycemic agents. Further studies are required to better clarify the long-term safety and efficacy of this promising class of diabetic drugs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)603-611
Number of pages9
JournalTherapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
StatePublished - May 3 2017


  • Cardiovascular mortality
  • Diabetes
  • Heart failure
  • Hypertension
  • SGLT2 inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Safety Research


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