Differences in the immune-inflammatory profiles of unipolar and bipolar depression

Andre R. Brunoni, Thitiporn Supasitthumrong, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Erica LM Vieira, Wagner F. Gattaz, Isabela M. Benseñor, Paulo A. Lotufo, Beny Lafer, Michael Berk, Andre F. Carvalho, Michael Maes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression (BD) both share increased immune-inflammatory activation. However, there are unclear patterns of differences in peripheral immune profiles between them. Methods: We examined such differences in 245 MDD and 59 BD patients, recruited in the same center, who were in an acute depressive episode of moderate severity. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses and generalized linear models were used to compare levels of plasma biomarkers between groups and to predict dichotomous classification. Results: Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR)1, IL-12 and IL-10 were significantly higher in MDD than in BD, whereas IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-18, IL-33, ST2 (IL1R Like 1) and KLOTHO were significantly higher in BD than in MDD. Moreover, logistic regression analyses correctly classified BD and MDD patients with 98.1% accuracy, using a combination of IL-6, IL-8, ST2, sTNFR2 (directly associated with BD) and IL-12 and TNF-α (directly associated with MDD). Patients with MDD with melancholic features showed higher IL-1β levels than those without melancholia. The sTNFR1 / sTNFR2 ratio significantly predicted MDD and state and trait anxiety and negative affect. Results remained significant after covariate adjustment, including drug use. Limitations: Cross-sectional study. Lack of control comparison group. Differences in exposure to medications among participants. Conclusions: Differences in immune profiles between BD and MDD patients exist, especially for the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS): increased IL-10 is the primary immune-regulatory mechanism in MDD, while increased sTNFR2 and KLOTHO are the primary regulatory mechanisms in BD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-15
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Cytokines
  • Immunology
  • Inflammation
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Psychiatry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Differences in the immune-inflammatory profiles of unipolar and bipolar depression'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this