Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk

Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial

Alan R. Kristal, Kathryn B. Arnold, Marian L. Neuhouser, Phyllis Goodman, Elizabeth A. Platz, Demetrius Albanes, Ian M. Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

101 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994-2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8-10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-577
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Volume172
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2010

Fingerprint

Prostatic Neoplasms
Diet
Neoplasms
Food
Confidence Intervals
Odds Ratio
Dietary Calcium
Digital Rectal Examination
Neoplasm Grading
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Selenium
Vitamin E
Vitamin D
Canada
Prostate
Oxidative Stress
Fatty Acids
Fats
Inflammation

Keywords

  • diet
  • dietary supplements
  • food
  • micronutrients
  • prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Kristal, A. R., Arnold, K. B., Neuhouser, M. L., Goodman, P., Platz, E. A., Albanes, D., & Thompson, I. M. (2010). Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk: Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172(5), 566-577. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq148

Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk : Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. / Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M.

In: American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 172, No. 5, 2010, p. 566-577.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kristal, AR, Arnold, KB, Neuhouser, ML, Goodman, P, Platz, EA, Albanes, D & Thompson, IM 2010, 'Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk: Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial', American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 172, no. 5, pp. 566-577. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq148
Kristal, Alan R. ; Arnold, Kathryn B. ; Neuhouser, Marian L. ; Goodman, Phyllis ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Thompson, Ian M. / Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk : Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. In: American Journal of Epidemiology. 2010 ; Vol. 172, No. 5. pp. 566-577.
@article{5ff3a6be1a094e40ab0897eadd540760,
title = "Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk: Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial",
abstract = "The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994-2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8-10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95{\%} CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95{\%} CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk.",
keywords = "diet, dietary supplements, food, micronutrients, prostatic neoplasms",
author = "Kristal, {Alan R.} and Arnold, {Kathryn B.} and Neuhouser, {Marian L.} and Phyllis Goodman and Platz, {Elizabeth A.} and Demetrius Albanes and Thompson, {Ian M.}",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1093/aje/kwq148",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "172",
pages = "566--577",
journal = "American Journal of Epidemiology",
issn = "0002-9262",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk

T2 - Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial

AU - Kristal, Alan R.

AU - Arnold, Kathryn B.

AU - Neuhouser, Marian L.

AU - Goodman, Phyllis

AU - Platz, Elizabeth A.

AU - Albanes, Demetrius

AU - Thompson, Ian M.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994-2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8-10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk.

AB - The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994-2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8-10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk.

KW - diet

KW - dietary supplements

KW - food

KW - micronutrients

KW - prostatic neoplasms

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77956237002&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77956237002&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/aje/kwq148

DO - 10.1093/aje/kwq148

M3 - Article

VL - 172

SP - 566

EP - 577

JO - American Journal of Epidemiology

JF - American Journal of Epidemiology

SN - 0002-9262

IS - 5

ER -