Budd-Chiari syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction that involves one or more draining hepatic veins. Its occurrence in populations in the western hemisphere is commonly associated with hypercoagulative states. Clinical manifestations in many cases are nonspecific, and imaging may be critical for early diagnosis of venous obstruction and accurate assessment of the extent of disease. If Budd-Chiari syndrome is not treated promptly and appropriately, the outcome may be dismal. Comprehensive imaging evaluations, in combination with pathologic analyses and clinical testing, are essential for determining the severity of disease, stratifying risk, selecting the appropriate therapy, and objectively assessing the response. The main goal of treatment is to alleviate hepatic congestion, thereby improving hepatocyte function and allowing resolution of portal hypertension. Various medical, endovascular, and surgical treatment options are available. Percutaneous and endovascular procedures, when performed in properly selected patients, may be more effective than medical treatment methods for preserving liver function and arresting disease progression in the long term. In addition, such procedures are associated with lower morbidity and mortality than are open surgical techniques.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging