Diabetes incidence and glucose tolerance after termination of pioglitazone therapy: Results from ACT NOW

Devjit Tripathy, Dawn C. Schwenke, Mary Ann Banerji, George A. Bray, Thomas A. Buchanan, Stephen C. Clement, Robert R. Henry, Abbas E. Kitabchi, Sunder Mudaliar, Robert E. Ratner, Frankie B. Stentz, Nicolas Musi, Peter D. Reaven, Ralph A. DeFronzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Context: Thiazolidinediones have proven efficacy in preventing diabetes in high-risk individuals. However, the effect of thiazolidinediones on glucose tolerance after cessation of therapy is unclear. Objective: To examine the effect of pioglitazone (PIO) on incidence of diabetes after discontinuing therapy in ACT NOW. Design, Settings and Patients: Two-hundred ninety-three subjects (placebo [PLAC], n = 138; PIO, n = 152) completed a median followup of 11.7 mo after study medication was stopped. Results: Diabetes developed in 138 (12.3%) of PLAC vs 17 of 152 PIO patients (11.2%; P = not significant, PIO vs PLAC). However, the cumulative incidence of diabetes from start of study medication to end of washout period remained significantly lower in PIO vs PLAC (10.7 vs 22.3%; P = .005). After therapy was discontinued, 23.0% (35/152) of PIO-treated patients remained normal-glucose tolerant (NGT) vs 13.8% (19/138) of PLAC-treated patients (P = .04). Insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (I0-120 /G0-120 × Matsuda index) was markedly lower in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who converted to diabetes during followup vs those who remained IGT or NGT. The decline in-cell function (insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) was similar in subjects with IGT who developed diabetes, irrespective of whether they were treated with PIO or PLAC. Conclusions: 1) The protective effect of PIO on incidence of diabetes attenuates after discontinuation of therapy, 2) cumulative incidence of diabetes in individuals exposed to PIO remained significantly (56%) lower than PLAC and a greater number of PIO-treated individuals maintained NGT after median followup of 11.4 mo, and 3) low insulin secretion/insulin resistance index is a strong predictor of future diabetes following PIO discontinuation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2056-2062
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


Dive into the research topics of 'Diabetes incidence and glucose tolerance after termination of pioglitazone therapy: Results from ACT NOW'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this