Development of an oxirane/acrylate interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) resin system

Robert Danso, Blake Hoedebecke, Kyumin Whang, Shayda Sarrami, Allen Johnston, Sam Flipse, Nancy Wong, H. Ralph Rawls

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective: Develop a hydrophobic, degradation-resistant dental restorative based on an Oxirane-Acrylate IPN System (OASys) with low shrinkage-stress to substantially extend clinical lifetime. Methods: Unfilled OASys blends were prepared using dipenta-erythritol-hexaacrylate (DPHA) and p-cycloaliphatic-diepoxide (EP5000). Varying proportions of camphorquinone/iodonium photoinitiator, with a co-reactant oligomeric-diol, served as the experimental curing system. The effects of oxirane-acrylate ratio on the degree-of-cure (Durometer-D hardness), hydrophobicity (contact angle), mechanical properties (3-point bending), near-infrared FTIR degree-of-conversion (DoC), polymerization shrinkage, and shrinkage stress were determined. 70:30 BisGMA:TEGDMA resin served as control. Results: Oxirane tended to decrease hardness and increase hydrophobicity. 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 EP5000:DPHA are harder after 24 h than control. 75:25 and 100:0 EP5000:DPHA increased in hardness over 24 h, but were softer than control. All groups increased in contact angle over 24 h. After 24 h, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 EP5000:DPHA were more hydrophobic (∼75–84°) than the control (∼65°). Acrylate DoC was ∼60% across all experimental groups. Initial oxirane conversion varied from ∼42% in 100:0 EP5000:DPHA to ∼82% 75:25 EP5000:DPHA. However, oxirane DoC increased for 100:0 EP5000:DPHA to ∼73° over 24 h, demonstrating dark cure. Moduli and ultimate transverse strengths of OASys groups were higher than for 0:100 EP5000:DPHA, with 50:50 EP5000:DPHA having higher modulus than other experimental groups. However, the control had higher modulus and UTS than all experimental groups. Volumetric shrinkage averaged 7% for experimental groups, but stress decreased dramatically with increasing oxirane content. Significance: Hydrophobic, low shrinkage-stress OASys resins are promising for development of composites that improve longevity and reduce the cost of dental care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1459-1465
Number of pages7
JournalDental Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2018


  • Acrylate
  • Cationic photoinitiation
  • Degree of conversion
  • Hydrophobicity
  • Interpenetrating network
  • Oxirane
  • Restorative resin
  • Shrinkage stress
  • Volumetric shrinkage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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