Background: The rate of hernia formation after closure of 10-12mmlaparoscopic trocar sites is grossly under-reported. Using an animal model, we have developed a method to assess trocar site fascial dehiscence and the strength of different methods of fascial closure. Materials and methods: Pigs (n = 9; 17 ± 2.5 lbs) underwent placement of 12 mm Hasson trocars with pneumoperitoneum maintained for 1 h. Three closure techniques (Figure-ofeight; simple interrupted; pulley) were compared with no fascial closure and to native fascia at five randomly allocated abdominal wall midline locations. Necropsy was performed on the fourth postoperative d. Statistical comparisons of tensile strength and breaking strength based on closure type and trocar location were made using ANOVA with Tukey's tests. Results: The mean (SD) force (Newtons) required for fascial disruption varied significantly with closure type [Native Fascia 170 (39), Figure-of-eight 169 (31), Pulley 167 (59), Simple Interrupted 151 (27), No Closure 108 (28)]; P = 0.007. The mean force required for fascial disruption was significantly increased for Native Fascia, Figure-of-eight, and Pulley relative to No Closure (P = 0.013, P = 0.015, P = 0.023, respectively). The mean (SD) force (in Newtons) required for fascial disruption also varied significantly with location of trocar [subxiphoid 181 (43), supraumbilical 151 (23), Umbilical 146 (23), infraumbilical 168 (62), suprapubic 120 (38)]; P = 0.03. The mean force for subxiphoid location was significantly increased relative to the suprapubic location (P = 0.021). Conclusions: We have developed a novel assessment model that reliably detects differences in fascial integrity after laparoscopic trocar placement and closure. This model will allow for further testing of various trocars and closure techniques, and facilitate hernia prevention strategies.
- Fascial closure
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