Development of a low-color, color stable, dual cure dental resin

James D. Oei, Maged Mishriky, Nasser Barghi, Henry R Rawls, H. Lee Cardenas, Rene Aguirre, Kyumin Whang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dual-cure (DC) resins are mainly used as cements due to high initial color (generally yellow) and large color shift (ΔE*) after polymerization as compared to light-cured resins. However, even as cements, this color shift is clinically unacceptable, especially when used to cement thin veneers. Objective: To develop a novel DC initiator system with both lower initial color (less yellow, i.e., whiter) and smaller ΔE*. Methods: The effect of using an allyl thiourea (T)/cumene hydroperoxide (CH) self-cure (SC) initiator system in combination with a photo-co-initiator, p-octyloxy-phenyl-phenyl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate (OPPI), in a commercial DC resin cement (PermaFlo DC, Ultradent Products, Inc.) was investigated. Initial color and ΔE* were assessed for 6 weeks in vitro under accelerated aging conditions (75 °C water bath). Rockwell15T hardness was used to assess degree of cure (DoC) and the three-point bending test was used to assess mechanical properties. Results: PermaFlo DC (control) was significantly harder than all experimental groups without OPPI but had up to three times higher initial color and four times greater color shift (ΔE* = 27 vs. 8). With OPPI, hardness in the experimental groups increased significantly and several were comparable to the controls. Initial color and ΔE* increased slightly (ΔE* = 9), but was still 3 times less than that of PermaFlo DC. DC samples containing OPPI had comparable modulus and ultimate transverse strengths to those of the controls. Conclusions: DC resins that use the T/CH initiator system are weaker but have extremely low color and ΔE*. The addition of OPPI increases DoC and mechanical properties to clinically acceptable levels and maintains extremely low color and ΔE*. Significance: With this novel initiator system, DC resins potentially can now have comparable color and color stability to light-cure resins and be used in broader esthetic dental applications to improve color stability and reduce shrinkage stress in restorative composites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-412
Number of pages8
JournalDental Materials
Volume29
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2013

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Synthetic Resins
Resins
Color
Cements
Hardness
Dental Esthetics
Light
Veneers
Mechanical properties
Thiourea
Thioureas
Bending tests
Baths
Polymerization

Keywords

  • Color stability
  • Dual cure
  • Hydroperoxide
  • Low color
  • Onium ion
  • Thiourea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Development of a low-color, color stable, dual cure dental resin. / Oei, James D.; Mishriky, Maged; Barghi, Nasser; Rawls, Henry R; Cardenas, H. Lee; Aguirre, Rene; Whang, Kyumin.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 29, No. 4, 04.2013, p. 405-412.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oei, JD, Mishriky, M, Barghi, N, Rawls, HR, Cardenas, HL, Aguirre, R & Whang, K 2013, 'Development of a low-color, color stable, dual cure dental resin', Dental Materials, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 405-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2013.01.005
Oei, James D. ; Mishriky, Maged ; Barghi, Nasser ; Rawls, Henry R ; Cardenas, H. Lee ; Aguirre, Rene ; Whang, Kyumin. / Development of a low-color, color stable, dual cure dental resin. In: Dental Materials. 2013 ; Vol. 29, No. 4. pp. 405-412.
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AU - Oei, James D.

AU - Mishriky, Maged

AU - Barghi, Nasser

AU - Rawls, Henry R

AU - Cardenas, H. Lee

AU - Aguirre, Rene

AU - Whang, Kyumin

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N2 - Dual-cure (DC) resins are mainly used as cements due to high initial color (generally yellow) and large color shift (ΔE*) after polymerization as compared to light-cured resins. However, even as cements, this color shift is clinically unacceptable, especially when used to cement thin veneers. Objective: To develop a novel DC initiator system with both lower initial color (less yellow, i.e., whiter) and smaller ΔE*. Methods: The effect of using an allyl thiourea (T)/cumene hydroperoxide (CH) self-cure (SC) initiator system in combination with a photo-co-initiator, p-octyloxy-phenyl-phenyl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate (OPPI), in a commercial DC resin cement (PermaFlo DC, Ultradent Products, Inc.) was investigated. Initial color and ΔE* were assessed for 6 weeks in vitro under accelerated aging conditions (75 °C water bath). Rockwell15T hardness was used to assess degree of cure (DoC) and the three-point bending test was used to assess mechanical properties. Results: PermaFlo DC (control) was significantly harder than all experimental groups without OPPI but had up to three times higher initial color and four times greater color shift (ΔE* = 27 vs. 8). With OPPI, hardness in the experimental groups increased significantly and several were comparable to the controls. Initial color and ΔE* increased slightly (ΔE* = 9), but was still 3 times less than that of PermaFlo DC. DC samples containing OPPI had comparable modulus and ultimate transverse strengths to those of the controls. Conclusions: DC resins that use the T/CH initiator system are weaker but have extremely low color and ΔE*. The addition of OPPI increases DoC and mechanical properties to clinically acceptable levels and maintains extremely low color and ΔE*. Significance: With this novel initiator system, DC resins potentially can now have comparable color and color stability to light-cure resins and be used in broader esthetic dental applications to improve color stability and reduce shrinkage stress in restorative composites.

AB - Dual-cure (DC) resins are mainly used as cements due to high initial color (generally yellow) and large color shift (ΔE*) after polymerization as compared to light-cured resins. However, even as cements, this color shift is clinically unacceptable, especially when used to cement thin veneers. Objective: To develop a novel DC initiator system with both lower initial color (less yellow, i.e., whiter) and smaller ΔE*. Methods: The effect of using an allyl thiourea (T)/cumene hydroperoxide (CH) self-cure (SC) initiator system in combination with a photo-co-initiator, p-octyloxy-phenyl-phenyl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate (OPPI), in a commercial DC resin cement (PermaFlo DC, Ultradent Products, Inc.) was investigated. Initial color and ΔE* were assessed for 6 weeks in vitro under accelerated aging conditions (75 °C water bath). Rockwell15T hardness was used to assess degree of cure (DoC) and the three-point bending test was used to assess mechanical properties. Results: PermaFlo DC (control) was significantly harder than all experimental groups without OPPI but had up to three times higher initial color and four times greater color shift (ΔE* = 27 vs. 8). With OPPI, hardness in the experimental groups increased significantly and several were comparable to the controls. Initial color and ΔE* increased slightly (ΔE* = 9), but was still 3 times less than that of PermaFlo DC. DC samples containing OPPI had comparable modulus and ultimate transverse strengths to those of the controls. Conclusions: DC resins that use the T/CH initiator system are weaker but have extremely low color and ΔE*. The addition of OPPI increases DoC and mechanical properties to clinically acceptable levels and maintains extremely low color and ΔE*. Significance: With this novel initiator system, DC resins potentially can now have comparable color and color stability to light-cure resins and be used in broader esthetic dental applications to improve color stability and reduce shrinkage stress in restorative composites.

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KW - Low color

KW - Onium ion

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