Development and Initial Validation of the Persevering Hope Scale: Measuring Wait-Power in Four Independent Samples

Sandra Yu Rueger, Everett L. Worthington,, Edward B. Davis, Zhuo Job Chen, Richard G. Cowden, Jaclyn M. Moloney, Elisha Eveleigh, Lauren B. Stone, Austin W. Lemke, Kevin J. Glowiak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Hope has been conceptualized as agency and pathways to achieve goals. However, this goal-directed conceptualization does not encapsulate all situations in which hope may be beneficial. To address the dispositional motivation to endure when a desired goal seems unattainable, unlikely, or even impossible (i.e., goal-transcendent hope), we provide initial psychometric evidence for the new Persevering Hope Scale (PHS). We developed and refined the PHS with undergraduates at a public college (Study 1) and replicated our findings in a community adult sample (Study 2). We replicated and extended these findings using longitudinal data with undergraduates at a faith-based college (Study 3) and a community sample of chronically ill adults (Study 4), and examined measurement invariance (Study 5). Scores on the PHS demonstrated robust evidence of estimated internal consistency and of criterion-related, convergent/discriminant, and incremental validity. Estimated temporal stability was modest. Partial scalar invariance was evidenced across samples, and full scalar invariance was evidenced across gender, race/ethnicity, and time. These preliminary findings suggest that the PHS is a psychometrically sound measure of persevering hope. Its use can broaden the current body of literature on trait hope to include goal-transcendent hope and advance research on the nature and benefits of this important construct.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-73
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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