Design of an injectable, self-adhesive, and highly stable hydrogel electrode for sleep recording

Ju Chun Hsieh, Weilong He, Dhivya Venkatraghavan, Victoria B. Koptelova, Zoya J. Ahmad, Ilya Pyatnitskiy, Wenliang Wang, Jinmo Jeong, Kevin Kai Wing Tang, Cody Harmeier, Conrad Li, Manini Rana, Sruti Iyer, Eesha Nayak, Hong Ding, Pradeep Modur, Vincent Mysliwiec, David M. Schnyer, Benjamin Baird, Huiliang Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


High-quality and continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring is desirable for sleep research, sleep monitoring, and the evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders. Existing continuous EEG monitoring technologies suffer from fragile connections, long-term stability, and complex preparation for electrodes under real-life conditions. Here, we report an injectable and spontaneously cross-linked hydrogel electrode for long-term EEG applications. Specifically, our electrodes have a long-term low impedance on hairy scalp regions of 17.53 kΩ for more than 8 h of recording, high adhesiveness on the skin of 0.92 N cm−1 with repeated attachment capability, and long-term wearability during daily activities and overnight sleep. In addition, our electrodes demonstrate a superior signal-to-noise-ratio of 23.97 decibels (dB) in comparison with commercial wet electrodes of 17.98 dB and share a high agreement of sleep stage classification with commercial wet electrodes during multichannel recording. These results exhibit the potential of our on-site-formed electrodes for high-quality, prolonged EEG monitoring in various scenarios.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100182
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 16 2024


  • DTI-3: Develop
  • electroencephalograms
  • hydrogels
  • injectable
  • long-term stable
  • sleep EEG
  • sleep monitoring
  • spontaneous cross-linking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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