Dermatitis and systemic mycosis in lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus associated with a marineadapted Fusarium solani species complex pathogen

Caroline E. Salter, Kerry O'Donnell, Deanna A. Sutton, David P. Marancik, Susan Knowles, Tonya M. Clauss, Aimee L. Berliner, Alvin C. Camus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


During a 4 mo epizootic, 100% of 152 lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus in 3 separate groups died while in quarantine following shipment to a public aquarium. Twelve animals with skin depigmentation and ulceration were received by the Aquatic Pathology Service, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA, for diagnostic evaluation. Microscopically, lesions in 11 seahorses included multifocal epithelial necrosis and ulceration associated with 2 to 7 μm diameter, branching, septate fungal hyphae, typically accompanied by deeper infiltration into underlying skeletal muscle. Angioinvasion, with vascular thrombosis and tissue infarction, was a prominent feature in multiple animals. Fungal invasion of one or more internal organs was observed in 4 animals. Hyphae appeared to course freely through tissues and elicited little or no inflammatory response. Fusariosis has been reported sporadically in fish and other aquatic organisms, but identification has often been limited to the genus level based solely on morphologic features. Morphologic characteristics of the fungus isolated from this case were consistent with the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), which includes over 50 members that can only be identified definitively using DNA sequence data. A 3-locus typing scheme identified the isolate as a distinct species/haplotype, designated FSSC 12-a, belonging to a specific lineage that appears adapted to aquatic environments and disease in marine animals. Empirical treatment with itraconazole failed to stop mortalities, and subsequent in vitro antifungal susceptibility data explained a lack of clinical efficacy for this agent. Effective treatment in human medicine has similarly been limited by poor susceptibility to several classes of antifungal compounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 10 2012


  • DNA typing
  • Fusarium
  • Histopathology
  • Mycosis
  • Phylogenetic analysis
  • Seahorse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science


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