Dependency, Self-Criticism, and Perceptions of Socialization Experiences

Irwin S. Rosenfarb, Joseph Becker, Arifulla Khan, Jim Mintz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


This study explored the relationship of dependency and self-criticism to perceptions of socialization experiences using 132 bipolar, nonbipolar depressed, and nonpsychiatric control female subjects. After controlling for level of depression and diagnosis, dependency was related to a distant relationship with fathers during development and was marginally related to perceptions of increased parental attention and overindulgence. Self-criticism was related to perceptions of difficulties in the quality of affective bonds with fathers and peers during childhood and was related marginally to perceptions of increased paternal power and control during development. No unique socialization experiences were associated with high dependency and self-criticism jointly, but women with both dispositional tendencies were likely to be severely depressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)669-675
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Abnormal Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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