Delivery of paclitaxel from cobalt-chromium alloy surfaces without polymeric carriers

Gopinath Mani, Celia E. Macias, Marc D. Feldman, Denes Marton, Sunho Oh, C. Mauli Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Polymer-based carriers are commonly used to deliver drugs from stents. However, adverse responses to polymer coatings have raised serious concerns. This research is focused on delivering drugs from stents without using polymers or any carriers. Paclitaxel (PAT), an anti-restenotic drug, has strong adhesion towards a variety of material surfaces. In this study, we have utilized such natural adhesion property of PAT to attach these molecules directly to cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy, an ultra-thin stent strut material. Four different groups of drug coated specimens were prepared by directly adding PAT to Co-Cr alloy surfaces: Group-A (PAT coated, unheated, and ethanol cleaned); Group-B (PAT coated, heat treated, and ethanol cleaned); Group-C (PAT coated, unheated, and not ethanol cleaned); and Group-D (PAT coated, heat treated and not ethanol cleaned). In vitro drug release of these specimens was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Groups A and B showed sustained PAT release for up to 56 days. A simple ethanol cleaning procedure after PAT deposition can remove the loosely bound drug crystals from the alloy surfaces and thereby allowing the remaining strongly bound drug molecules to be released at a sustained rate. The heat treatment after PAT coating further improved the stability of PAT on Co-Cr alloy and allowed the drug to be delivered at a much slower rate, especially during the initial 7 days. The specimens which were not cleaned in ethanol, Groups C and D, showed burst release. PAT coated Co-Cr alloy specimens were thoroughly characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These techniques were collectively useful in studying the morphology, distribution, and attachment of PAT molecules on Co-Cr alloy surfaces. Thus, this study suggests the potential for delivering paclitaxel from Co-Cr alloy surfaces without using any carriers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5372-5384
Number of pages13
Issue number20
StatePublished - Jul 2010


  • Cobalt-Chromium alloy
  • Drug delivery
  • Drug-eluting stents
  • Surface modification
  • Surface treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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