The enhancer pioneer transcription factor FoxA1 is a global mediator of steroid receptor (SR) action in hormone-dependent cancers. In castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), FoxA1 acts as an androgen receptor cofactor to drive G 2 to M-phase cell-cycle transit. Here, we describe a mechanistically distinct SRindependent role for FoxA1 in driving G 1 to S-phase cell-cycle transit in CRPC. By comparing FoxA1 binding sites in prostate cancer cell genomes, we defined a codependent set of FoxA1-MYBL2 and FoxA1-CREB1 binding sites within the regulatory regions of the Cyclin E2 and E2F1 genes that are critical for CRPC growth. Binding at these sites upregulate the Cyclin E2 and Cyclin A2 genes in CRPC but not in earlier stage androgen-dependent prostate cancer, establishing a stage-specific role for this pathway in CRPC growth. Mechanistic investigations indicated that FoxA1, MYBL2, or CREB1 induction of histone H3 acetylation facilitated nucleosome disruption as the basis for codependent transcriptional activation and G 1 to S-phase cell-cycle transit. Our findings establish FoxA1 as a pivotal driver of the cell-cycle in CRPC which promotes G 1 to S-phase transit as well as G 2 to M-phase transit through two distinct mechanisms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research