Defects in insulin secretion and action in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Devjit Tripathy, Alberto O. Chavez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin action and insulin secretion. Although insulin resistance manifests early during the prediabetic state, a failing ß-cell function unable to overcome insulin resistance at target tissues determines the onset of T2DM. This review focuses on recent advances in the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired regulation of the enteroinsular axis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are currently the subjects of intensive research. In addition, the adipose tissue has emerged as a major endocrine organ that secretes a growing list of adipocytokines with diverse central and peripheral metabolic effects. The role of a growing number of candidate genes and transcription factors regulating insulin action and secretion is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-191
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Diabetes Reports
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

Keywords

  • Adipokines
  • Free fatty acids
  • Incretins
  • Insulin resistance
  • Insulin secretory defects
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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