Deciduous tooth biomarkers reveal atypical fetal inflammatory regulation in autism spectrum disorder

Dani Dumitriu, Elena Baldwin, Roozie J.J. Coenen, Luke A. Hammond, Darcy S. Peterka, Lynne D Heilbrun, Richard E. Frye, Raymond Palmer, Hjalmar Nobel Norrman, Anna Fridell, Karl Lundin Remnelius, Johan Isaksson, Christine Austin, Paul Curtin, Sven Bölte, Manish Arora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Atypical regulation of inflammation has been proposed in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, measuring the temporal profile of fetal inflammation associated with future ASD diagnosis has not been possible. Here, we present a method to generate approximately daily profiles of prenatal and early childhood inflammation as measured by developmentally archived C-reactive protein (CRP) in incremental layers of deciduous tooth dentin. In our discovery population, a group of Swedish twins, we found heightened inflammation in the third trimester in children with future ASD diagnosis relative to controls (n = 66; 14 ASD cases; critical window: −90 to −50 days before birth). In our replication study, in the US, we observed a similar increase in CRP in ASD cases during the third trimester (n = 47; 23 ASD cases; −128 to −21 days before birth). Our results indicate that the third trimester is a critical period of atypical fetal inflammatory regulation in ASD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106247
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 17 2023


  • Clinical neuroscience
  • Immunology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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