Most prostate biopsies do not show malignancy. The proper management of non-cancerous pathologic findings of the prostate is controversial. For this article, we reviewed the current literature for indications for repeat prostate biopsy after initial biopsies demonstrated non-cancerous prostatic tissue or benign prostatic hyperplasia. This review includes discussions of management of asymptomatic prostatitis and how it may affect prostate-specific antigen, and also the management of several potentially premalignant lesions such as atrophy, atypical small acinar proliferation, and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. There is a paucity of randomized trials in this area and, considering the high number of biopsies with non-malignant findings, we conclude that more investigation is warranted in this area.
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