Cytokines and chemokines profile in encephalitis patients: A meta-analysis

Alireza Soltani Khaboushan, Mohammad Taha Pahlevan-Fallahy, Parnian Shobeiri, Antônio L. Teixeira, Nima Rezaei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background Encephalitis is caused by autoimmune or infectious agents marked by brain inflammation. Investigations have reported altered concentrations of the cytokines in encephalitis. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between encephalitis and alterations of cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Methods We found possibly suitable studies by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, systematically from inception to August 2021. 23 articles were included in the meta-analysis. To investigate sources of heterogeneity, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted. The protocol of the study has been registered in PROSPERO with a registration ID of CRD42021289298. Results A total of 23 met our eligibility criteria to be included in the meta-analysis. A total of 12 cytokines were included in the meta-analysis of CSF concentration. Moreover, 5 cytokines were also included in the serum/plasma concentration meta-analysis. According to the analyses, patients with encephalitis had higher CSF amounts of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CXCL10, and TNF-α than healthy controls. The alteration in the concentration of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL13, and IFN-γ was not significant. In addition, the serum/plasma levels of the TNF-α were increased in encephalitis patients, but serum/plasma concentration of the IL-6, IL-10, CXCL10, and CXCL13 remained unchanged. Conclusions This meta-analysis provides evidence for higher CSF concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CXCL10, and TNF-α in encephalitis patients compared to controls. The diagnostic and prognostic value of these cytokines and chemokines should be investigated in future studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0273920
JournalPloS one
Issue number9 September
StatePublished - Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Cytokines and chemokines profile in encephalitis patients: A meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this