A model system for cytokine-induced up-regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression in chronically infected promonocyte clones was established. The parent promonocyte cell line U937 was chronically infected with HIV-1 and from this line a clone, U1, was derived. U1 showed minimal constitutive expression of HIV-1, but virus expression was markedly up-regulated by a phytohemagglutinin-induced supernatant containing multiple cytokines and by recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor alone. Recombinant interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α did not up-regulate virus expression. Concomitant with the cytokine-induced up-regulation of HIV-1, expression of membrane-bound IL-1β was selectively induced in U1 in the absence of induction of other surface membrane proteins. This cytokine up-regulation of IL-1β was not seen in the uninfected parent U937 cell line. These studies have implications for the understanding of the mechanism of progression from a latent or low-level HIV-1 infection to a productive infection with resulting immunosuppression. In addition, this model can be used to delineate the potential mechanisms whereby HIV-1 infection regulates cellular gene expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas