Estrogen receptor (ER) signaling plays an important role in breast cancer progression, and ER functions are influenced by coregulatory proteins. PELP1 (proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein 1) is a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays an important role in ER signaling. Its expression is deregulated in hormonal cancers. We identified PELP1 as a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) substrate. Using site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro kinase assays, we identified Ser477 and Ser991 of PELP1 as CDK phosphorylation sites. Using the PELP1 Ser991 phospho-specific antibody, we show that PELP1 is hyperphosphorylated during cell cycle progression. Model cells stably expressing the PELP1 mutant that lack CDK sites had defects in estradiol (E2)-mediated cell cycle progression and significantly affected PELP1-mediated oncogenic functions in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that PELP1 modulates transcription factor E2F1 transactivation functions, that PELP1 is recruited to pRb/E2F target genes, and that PELP1 facilitates ER signaling cross talk with cell cycle machinery. We conclude that PELP1 is a novel substrate of interphase CDKs and that its phosphorylation is important for the proper function of PELP1 in modulating hormone-driven cell cycle progression and also for optimal E2F transactivation function. Because the expression of both PELP1 and CDKs is deregulated in breast tumors, CDK-PELP1 interactions will have implications in breast cancer progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research