Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis have a high risk of developing hyperkalemia, generally defined as serum potassium (K+) concentrations of >5.0 mmol/l, particularly those undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Currently, the key approaches to the management of hyperkalemia in patients with ESRD are dialysis, dietary K+ restriction, and avoidance of medications that increase hyperkalemia risk. In this review, we highlight the issues and challenges associated with effective management of hyperkalemia in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis using an illustrative case presentation. In addition, we examine the potential nondialysis options for the management of these patients, including use of the newer K+ binder agents patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, which may reduce the need for the highly restrictive dialysis diet, with its own implication on nutritional status in patients with ESRD, as well as reducing the risk of potentially life-threatening hyperkalemia.
- end-stage renal disease
- serum potassium
- sodium zirconium cyclosilicate
ASJC Scopus subject areas