Cryoablation is gaining acceptance as a primary treatment of localized as well as a salvage therapy of metastatic urologic malignancies. Anecdotal clinical reports suggest cryoablation can induce a systemic anti-tumor immune response; this phenomenon has been confirmed in animal models. To capitalize on this stimulatory effect of cryotherapy for control of advanced malignancies, it must be further intensified. This article reviews the existing evidence regarding cryoimmunology and discusses the mechanisms for generation of an anti-tumor immune response. Several immunotherapy approaches that can be combined with cryoablation to devise a cryoimmunotherapeutic strategy with potential to affect the progression of metastatic disease are described.
ASJC Scopus subject areas