Cross-validation of picture completion effort indices in personal injury litigants and disability claimants

Jeremy J. Davis, Tara S. McHugh, Amy D. Bagley, Bradley N. Axelrod, Robin A. Hanks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Picture Completion (PC) indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition, were investigated as performance validity indicators (PVIs) in a sample referred for independent neuropsychological examination. Participants from an archival database were included in the study if they were between the ages of 18 and 65 and were administered at least two PVIs. Effort measure performance yielded groups that passed all or failed one measure (Pass; n = 95) and failed two or more PVIs (Fail-2; n = 61). The Pass group performed better on PC than the Fail-2 group. PC cut scores were compared in differentiating Pass and Fail-2 groups. PC raw score of ≤12 showed the best classification accuracy in this sample correctly classifying 91% of Pass and 41% of Fail-2 cases. Overall, PC indices show good specificity and low sensitivity for exclusive use as PVIs, demonstrating promise for use as adjunctive embedded measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)768-773
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Effort assessment
  • Forensic neuropsychology
  • Picture Completion
  • Symptom validity testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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