Creation of an ex-vivo bovine kidney flow model for testing embolic agents: work in progress

Luis Garza, Ryan Bitar, Barrett O’Donnell, Matthew Parker, Carlos Ortiz, Charles Hyman, John Walker, Ho Young Song, Jorge Lopera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To develop an ex- vivo perfusion flow model using a bovine kidney for future testing of embolic agents in an inexpensive and easy way. Methods: Six bovine adult kidneys were used for this study. Kidneys were cannulated and perfused via a roller pump. Three embolic agents, coils, Gelfoam, and a glue mixture of Histoacryl + Lipiodol, were deployed by targeting three secondary segmental arteries per kidney via a 5Fr catheter under fluoroscopic guidance. Cannulation time, success rate of segmental artery selection and embolic agent deployment, total operational time, and fluoroscopy dose were recorded. Results: Average kidney weight was 0.752 +/− 0.094 kg. All six bovine kidneys were successfully cannulated in 21.6 min +/− 3.0 min. Deployment of coils and glue was achieved in every case (12/12); however, Gelfoam injection was not successful in one instance (5/6, 83%). Coil deployment demonstrated no embolic effect while Gelfoam and glue injections demonstrated decreased distal contrast filling post-embolization. Mean dose area product was 12.9 ± 1.8 Gy·cm2, fluoroscopy time was 10 ± 4 min and operational time was 27 ± 8 min. Conclusions: We describe the creation of an ex vivo bovine kidney flow model for the preclinical evaluation of different embolic materials. The flow model can be modified to provide extensive bench testing and it is a promising tool for hands -on training in basic and advanced embolization techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20
JournalCVIR Endovascular
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Bovine kidney
  • Embolization
  • Flow model
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Perfusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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