Creating an Inexpensive PVC Shoulder Model for the Training of Ultrasound-Guided Posterior Glenohumeral Joint Injections

Joshua Melanson, Skylar Davidson, Ryland McDermott, Nora Doyle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Ultrasound-guided injections are used to treat common shoulder pathologies and have been shown to be more accurate and effective than traditional landmark-guided procedures. Currently, there exists no inexpensive shoulder model that accurately simulates the anatomical structures of the shoulder while also facilitating glenohumeral joint (GHJ) injection. Our model is an alternative to the traditional bedside training and provides a low-risk training environment. Methods: We created this model from easily accessible materials. Polyvinyl chloride pipe was used to create the skeletal infrastructure pectoral girdle. A detergent pod was used to represent the GHJ space. Steaks were used to simulate the infraspinatus and deltoid muscles, with meat glue as a fascial layer between the two simulated muscles. Total cost of materials for the model was $19.71. Results: Our model successfully replicates known anatomical features of the GHJ. Additionally, the model facilitates injection into a GHJ space, representing a GHJ injection. Our model was replicated to train medical student practitioners during five different educational sessions. The model was validated through comparison to standardized educational ultrasound training videos. It was further validated by ultrasound experts. Conclusions: The shoulder model we created is effective in simulating GHJ injections under ultrasound guidance. It simulates realistic muscle and bony landmarks both for ultrasound imaging and injection feel. Importantly, it is inexpensive and easy to replicate allowing more access to medical practitioners and students to be educated on the procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2307-2313
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • glenohumeral joint
  • glenohumeral joint injection
  • inexpensive
  • ultrasound education
  • ultrasound models
  • ultrasound simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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