Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with radical cystectomy (RC) refusal, subsequent treatment decisions, and their influence on overall survival (OS). Materials and methods: We queried the National Cancer Database for patients with non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), cT2-T4M0. Patients who refused recommended RC were further stratified by treatment into chemotherapy, radiation therapy, chemoradiotherapy, and no treatment groups. Patients were excluded from the analysis if surgery was not planned, not recommended; or if survival data were unknown. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was utilized to identify independent predictors of refusing RC. Cox proportional hazards model with propensity score overlap weighting was utilized to identify survival predictors. Kaplan-Meier analysis was utilized to evaluate survival according to treatment. Results: A total of 74,159 MIBC patients were identified. Among patients with documented reasons for no surgery, 5.4% refused RC despite physician recommendation. Predictors of refusal on multivariate analysis included female gender (P = 0.016), advancing age ≥80 (vs. <60, P < 0.001), African American race (vs. white, P < 0.001) Medicaid (vs. private insurance, P < 0.001) and advancing T stage (T4 vs. T2, P < 0.001). Patients treated at academic centers were less likely to decline RC (vs. community centers, P < 0.001). Median survival after RC was 40.44 months vs. 12.52 months in refusal group. Undergoing chemoradiation had significantly improved survival in those patients compared to monotherapy or no treatment (hazard ratio 0.25, P < 0.001). Overlap weighted model Identified RC refusal as an independent predictor of poor OS (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Several sociodemographic and clinical factors are associated with refusing radical cystectomy. Such refusal is associated with poor survival outcomes.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2021|
- Bladder cancer
- Shared decision-making
ASJC Scopus subject areas