Corneal Dystrophies

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Corneal dystrophies are a group of inherited, usually bilateral, symmetric, slowly progressive disorders affecting the cornea. Traditionally corneal dystrophies have been classified based on anatomic level of involvement, but due to the limitation of this classification, a modified classification is proposed by International Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) classification in 2015 (Weiss et al. Cornea. 2015;34(2):117-59). According to the latest revision of IC3D, corneal dystrophies are now divided into (1) epithelial and subepithelial dystrophies, (2) epithelial-stromal TGFBI dystrophies, (3) stromal dystrophies, and (4) endothelial dystrophies. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) offers a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging modality of the living cornea at the cellular level. It helps in diagnosis and understanding the pathophysiology of corneal dystrophies by evaluating the extent and depth of dystrophic depositions and morphological changes of corneal structures at the histological level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationIn Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Eye Disease
PublisherSpringer London
Number of pages29
ISBN (Electronic)9781447175179
ISBN (Print)9781447175162
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Congenital stromal corneal dystrophy
  • Corneal dystrophy
  • Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy
  • Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy
  • Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy
  • Granular corneal dystrophy
  • In vivo confocal microscopy
  • Lattice corneal dystrophy
  • Macular corneal dystrophy
  • Meesmann corneal dystrophy
  • Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy
  • Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy
  • Schnyder corneal dystrophy
  • Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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