N-halamine-based interpenetrating polymer networks were developed as a simple and effective strategy in the preparation of antimicrobial polymers. An N-halamine monomer, N-chloro-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl methacrylate, was incorporated into polyurethane in the presence of a cross-linker and an initiator. Post-polymerization of the monomers led to the formation of polyurethane/N-halamine semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The presence of N-halamines in the semi-interpenetrating polymer networks was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance infrared, water contact angle, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The N-halamine contents in the semi-interpenetrating polymer networks could be readily controlled by changing reaction conditions. The distribution of active chlorines within the semi-interpenetrating polymer networks was characterized with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Contact mode antimicrobial tests, zone of inhibition studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the semi-interpenetrating polymer networks had potent antimicrobial and antifouling effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Release tests demonstrated the outstanding stability of the N-halamine structures in the new semi-interpenetrating polymer networks.
- Interpenetrating polymer network
- N -halamine
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Polymers and Plastics
- Materials Chemistry