Few studies of the health impact of the built environment have examined downstream outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the neighborhood-level proportional variance in the 10- and 30-year Framingham risk scores (FRS) in the Framingham Heart Study. Our analysis included 3,103 Offspring- and Generation 3 cohort participants 20–74 years old, inhabiting private residences in Massachusetts geocoded to neighborhoods (defined as 2000 US Census block groups) containing the residences of 5 participants. The outcome variables were log-transformed to mitigate the effects of the non-normal distributions. In order to remove the possible effects of neighborhood clustering by age and sex, we analyzed residuals of the transformed FRS regressed upon age and sex. Neighborhood-level intraclass correlations (ICCs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of age- and sex-independent, log-transformed FRS were estimated using multilevel linear regression. Individual- and neighborhood-level variables were then added to models to evaluate their influence on ICCs. Analyses were repeated stratified by sex. Among 2,888 participants living in 187 neighborhoods, 1.73% (95% CI: 0.62, 4.72%) of the variance in 10-year FRS was explained at the neighborhood level. The neighborhood ICC was 2.70% (95% CI: 0.93, 7.56) among women but 0.23% (95% CI: 0.00, 99.47%) among men. In the analysis of the neighborhood-level variances in 30-year FRS among 2,317 participants residing in 164 neighborhoods, the ICCs were 3.31% (95% CI: 1.66, 6.47%), 6.47% (95% CI: 3.22, 12.58), and 0.74% (95% CI: 0.01, 33.31), among all participants, women, and men, respectively. In our homogenous middle-class white population in Massachusetts, residential neighborhoods explained a small proportion of the variance in CVD risk.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)