Objectives: To assess national trends of acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence, incremental costs, risk factors, and readmissions among patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during 2012–2017. Background: AKI remains a serious complication for patients undergoing CAG/PCI. Evidence is lacking in contemporary AKI trends and its impact on hospital resource utilization. Methods: Patients who underwent CAG/PCI procedures in 749 hospitals were identified from Premier Healthcare Database. AKI was defined by ICD-9/10 diagnosis codes (584.9/N17.9, 583.89/N14.1, 583.9/N05.9, E947.8/T50.8X5) during 7 days post index procedure. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Results: Among 2,763,681 patients, AKI incidence increased from 6.0 to 8.4% or 14% per year in overall patients; from 18.0 to 28.4% in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and from 2.4 to 4.2% in those without CKD (all p <.001). Significant risk factors for AKI included older age, being uninsured, inpatient procedures, CKD, anemia, and diabetes (all p <.001). AKI was associated with higher 30-day in-hospital mortality (ORadjusted = 2.55; 95% CI: 2.40, 2.70) and readmission risk (ORadjusted = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.50, 1.55). The AKI-related incremental cost during index visit and 30-day readmissions were estimated to be $8,416 and $580 per inpatient procedure and $927 and $6,145 per outpatient procedure. Overall excess healthcare burden associated with AKI was $1.67 billion. Conclusions: AKI incidence increased significantly in this large, multifacility sample of patients undergoing CAG/PCI procedures and was associated with substantial increase in hospital costs, readmissions, and mortality. Efforts to reduce AKI risk in US healthcare system are warranted.
- acute kidney injury
- chronic kidney disease
- economic burden
- percutaneous coronary intervention
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine