Consciousness Recovery in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review Comparing Modafinil and Amantadine

Ali Seifi, Sina Hassannezhad, Reza Mosaddeghi-Heris, Arash Haji Kamanaj Olia, Ali Adib, Shaheryar Hafeez, Colleen Barthol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives Acute traumatic brain injury is one of the most common causes of death and disability. Reduction in the level of consciousness is a significant complication that can impact morbidity. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used method of assessing the level of consciousness. Neurostimulants such as amantadine and modafinil are common pharmacologic agents that increase GCS in patients with brain trauma. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these 2 drugs. Methods This systematic review obtained articles from Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and MEDLINE databases. Extensive searches were conducted separately by 4 individuals in 3 stages. Ultimately, 16 clinical trials, cohort studies, case reports, and case series articles were obtained after reading the title, abstract, and full text and considering the exclusion criteria. The data of the final article were entered into the analysis table. This study was registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022334409) and conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results Amantadine seems to be associated with a higher overall response rate. In contrast, modafinil is associated with the most remarkable change in GCS score during treatment. However, the number of clinical trials with high quality and sample size has not been satisfactory to compare the effectiveness of these 2 drugs and their potential side effects. Conclusions The authors recommend additional double-blind clinical trials are needed to be conducted with a larger sample size, comparing amantadine with modafinil to delineate the efficacy and adverse effects, both short and long term.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-238
Number of pages10
JournalClinical neuropharmacology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023


  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • amantadine
  • modafinil
  • neurostimulants
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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