Duplex and color Doppler imaging have proved to be an excellent noninvasive modality for evaluating complications of percutaneous interventional vascular procedures. Complications including hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula (AVF), thrombosis, stenosis, and vessel occlusion are routinely diagnosed with duplex imaging. The most common complication of vena cava filter placement is bleeding and access site thrombosis. AVF is a rare complication of vena cava filters. Puncturerelated AVFs are false vascular channels between an adjacent vein and artery that demonstrate low-resistance arterial signals, high velocity venous outflow, and variable flow patterns within themselves. Vena cava filter placement is a relatively lowrisk alternative for prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism in patients with deep vein thrombosis who are not suitable for anticoagulation. There is an increasing trend in the number of vena cava filter implantation procedures performed each year. Vena cava filters are effective in preventing pulmonary embolism but have risks associated with implantation. Awareness of potential complications can lead to early detection as well as management of complications to improve clinical outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine