Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) should reach clinical stability within 2-4 days after initiation of appropriate treatment (including antibiotics). Complications of CAP are divided in intrathoracic and extrathoracic. Severe sepsis is the most frequent complication in CAP. Disseminated infection should be suspected especially in the presence of bacteremia. Therapeutic failure should be considered in patients with CAP that present infectious and noninfectious complications. Complementary therapy of antimicrobials, drainage and surgery may be needed in some infectious causes of nonresponding pneumonia.
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