Complete genome sequence of the cold-active bacteriophage VMY22 from Bacillus cereus

Kunhao Qin, Benxu Cheng, Shengting Zhang, Nan Wang, Yuan Fang, Qi Zhang, Anxiu Kuang, Lianbing Lin, Xiuling Ji, Yunlin Wei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The cold-active bacteriophage VMY22, belonging to the Podoviridae family, was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 18,609 bp long, with an overall G + C content of 36.4 mol%, and 25 open reading frames (ORFs). The sequence contains 46 potential promoters, 6 transcription terminators, and no tRNAs. Most of the ORFs show a high degree of similarity to B103 (NC_004165). Two noteworthy findings were made. First, one of the predicted proteins, ORF 19, shows high sequence similarity to the bacteriocin biosynthesis protein from Bacillus cereus. From this information, we propose that the VMY22 phage is at an intermediate phase in its coevolution with its bacterial host. Second, seven of the hypothetical proteins appear to be unique to this cold-active B. cereus phage (i.e., not found in temperate-active B. cereus phages). These observations add to our current knowledge about the coevolution of bacteriophages and their hosts. The identification of a novel group of gene and protein structures and functions will lead to a better understanding of cold-adaptation mechanisms in bacteria and their bacteriophages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)432-435
Number of pages4
JournalVirus Genes
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Bacteriocin
  • Bacteriophage
  • Cold-active phage
  • Sequence analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Virology


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