A novel nonhydrolyzable ether derivative of RRR-α-tocopherol, RRR-α-tocopherol ether acetic acid analog [2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2R-(4R,8R, 12-trimethyltridecyl)chroman-6-yloxyacetic acid (α-TEA)], and a hydrolyzable ester derivative RRR-α-tocopheryl succinate (vitamin E succinate; VES) inhibited BALB/c mouse 66cl-4-GFP mammary tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of 66cl-4-GFP cells in culture with α-TEA or VES induced dose-dependent DNA synthesis arrest and apoptosis and inhibited colony formation. Liposomal formulations of α-TEA delivered orally or by aerosol significantly reduced subcutaneous 66cl-4-GFP tumor burden and metastasis to lung and lymph nodes. Liposomal formulations of VES delivered by aerosol significantly reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis, but not lymph node metastasis. Unlike α-TEA, VES was ineffective in reducing tumor burden and metastasis to lungs and lymph nodes when administered orally. Analyses of tumor sections showed that α-TEA delivered by either method significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation as measured by Ki67, and increased apoptosis as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL), whereas VES delivered by aerosol reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, but not significantly. In summary, the nonhydrolyzable ether vitamin E derivative ́-TEA was effective in reducing tumor burden and metastasis when delivered either by aerosol or orally, whereas the hydrolyzable ester vitamin E derivative VES was effective only when delivered by aerosol.
- Antitumor agents
- RRR-α-tocopheryl succinate (VES)
- Syngeneic mouse mammary cancer model
- Vitamin E analog ́-TEA
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)