Comparison of observer reliability of three-dimensional cephalometric landmark identification on subject images from Galileos and i-CAT cone beam CT

R. A. Katkar, C. Kummet, D. Dawson, L. Moreno Uribe, V. Allareddy, M. Finkelstein, A. Ruprecht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Scopus citations


Objectives: Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of cone beam CT (CBCT) for three-dimensional cephalometric analysis and craniofacial reconstruction in orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment planning. However, there is a need to redefine the cephalometric landmarks in three dimensional cephalometric analysis and to demonstrate the reproducibility of landmark identification on the type of CBCT machine being used. Methods: CBCT images of 20 subjects aged 15-25 years were selected, ten each from Galileos® (Sirona Dental Systems Inc., Bensheim, Germany) and Next Generation i-CAT® (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA). 2 observers located 18 landmarks on each subject twice using Dolphin-3D v. 11 software (Dolphin Imaging andManagement Systems, Chatsworth, CA). Interand intraobserver reliability was assessed using Euclidean distances and linear mixed models. Results: Overall, the intra- and interobserver reliability was excellent for both machines. The landmarks Gonion, Nasion, Orbitale and Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS) showed the greatest median Euclidean distances for both intra- and interobserver measurements. There were significant observer effects in the unified models for Sella, Menton and all six dental landmarks. For Sella, the distances between the measures were significantly smaller (more closely spaced) on the i-CAT machine than on the Galileos in both intra- and interobserver measurements. Conclusions: The intra- and interobserver reliability was excellent for both machines. Some of the landmarks were not as reproducible as others. Which machine produced the highest reliability depended on the landmark considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20130059
JournalDentomaxillofacial Radiology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013
Externally publishedYes



  • Anatomic landmarks
  • Cephalometry
  • Cone beam CT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Dentistry(all)

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