Comparison of 1-field, 2-fields, and 3-fields fundus photography for detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy

Jessica C. Lee, Lilian Nguyen, Linda S. Hynan, Preston H. Blomquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Aim: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of 1-, 2-, and 3-fields, nonmydriatic (NM), 45° color photography compared with mydriatic ophthalmoscopy for detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Masked, comparative case series was performed utilizing a group of 128 diabetic patients (256 eyes) with various stages of DR who underwent both 3-fields NM color photography and ophthalmologic examination. In a blinded manner, the same optometrist who read the original 3-fields images for a patient read the 1- and 2-fields photographs on separate dates later. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of digital retinal photography compared with dilated ophthalmoscopy were, respectively: 88% and 76% for 1-field; 94% and 69% for 2-fields; and 100% and 79% for 3-fields. The proportion of agreement between fundus photography reading and exam DR diagnosis were 58% for 1-field, 58% for 2-fields, and 77% for 3-fields. Kappa and Cramer's V statistics for 1-, 2-, and 3-fields were 0.55 and 0.60, 0.52 and 0.57, and 0.72 and 0.74, respectively. Three-fields measurement of DR was most similar to the dilated ophthalmological exam overall and across all DR severity levels. Conclusions: Compared to 1- and 2-fields fundus photography, 3-fields is superior for detecting vision-threatening DR. One- and 2-fields have reasonable sensitivity for DR screening.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107441
JournalJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Fundus photography
  • Screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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