Comparing the effects of whey and casein supplementation on nutritional status and immune parameters in patients with chronic liver disease: A randomised double-blind controlled trial

Y. G.G. Mizubuti, E. L.M. Vieira, T. A. Silva, M. O. D'Alessandro, S. V. Generoso, A. L. Teixeira, A. S. Lima, M. I.T.D. Correia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Protein supplementation may be beneficial for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). This study compared the effects of whey protein isolate (WP) and casein (CA) supplementation on nutritional status and immune parameters of CLD patients who were randomly assigned to take 20 g of WP or CA twice per d as a supplement for 15 d. Body composition, muscle functionality and plasmatic immunomarkers were assessed before and after supplementation. Patients were also classified according to the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) into less (MELD < 15) and more (MELD ≥ 15) severe disease groups. Malnutrition, determined by the Subjective Global Assessment at baseline, was observed in 57·4 % and 54·2 % of patients in the WP and CA groups, respectively (P = 0·649). Protein intake was lower at baseline in the WP group than in the CA group (P = 0·035), with no difference after supplementation (P = 0·410). Both the WP and CA MELD < 15 groups increased protein intake after supplementation according to the intragroup analysis. No differences were observed in body composition, muscle functionality, most plasma cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β and interferon-γ), immunomodulatory proteins (sTNFR1, sTNFR2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) or immunomodulatory hormones (adiponectin, insulin and leptin) after supplementation in the WP groups at the two assessed moments. WP supplementation increased the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein-10/CXCL10 (P = 0·022), eotaxin-1/CCL11 (P = 0·031) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 (P = 0·018) and decreased IL-5 (P = 0·027), including among those in the MELD ≥ 15 group, for whom IL-10 was also increased (P = 0·008). Thus, WP consumption by patients with CLD impacted the immunomodulatory responses when compared with CA with no impact on nutritional status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)768-779
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume125
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 14 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Chronic liver disease
  • Immunomodulation
  • Nutritional status
  • Supplementation
  • Whey protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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